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Materials We have taken a lot from nature and must therefore speak of nature as we talk about materials that pens and was made ​​. Precious are: gold, silver , platinum , rhodium and the like ... Base are: copper , nickel , iron and the like Pure gold , that is say 1000/000 is relatively weak . It would deform in the use . And the same goes for pure silver. An 18 carat gold or silver pen is not to work but rather to show off. 24 carat : pure Gold 18 carat : 75 % Gold 14 carat : more than 58 % Gold 12 carat : Half Gold 10 carat : slightly less than half Gold 08 carat : a third Gold At 12 to 10 carat, it is very conceivable (but need not) that changes of color occur when cleaning and under 10 carat such color changes are even usual. It is obvious that on an expensive writing instrument the gold layer is thicker; it is also true that with less carat gold firmness increases. For Rolled Gold is hereto between 10 and 18 carat very thin gold applied. This has become significantly thinner after the gold price increased the late seventies. People talk in this context about microns, a micron is one millionth of a millimeter .
And then of course there are several other systems. IE a finish that in fact is nothing more or less is then engraving. This works with a motif on a template. There are also here two systems. One with a connective template and one with a loose, that is to say movable template, or mold. Dooing so the (expensive ) material of the pen shank is cut, a method that only because of the thinness of the base, is not applicable to Rolled Gold. Furthermore one in which the material as it were, is pushed away. In the latter operation, the instrument still needs to be polished, because as otherwise the surface would exhibit tiny bumps.