© Pennenweb 2016/2017
The oldest known "drawings" on walls in caves, among others in Altamira near
Santander in northern Spain discovered in 1902 by a believer, are still complete riddles
for us. They are ' somewhere ' between 50,000 and 10,000 years before Christ put
down. These in burrows and holes discovered scriptures, are seen by some as the last
convulsion of a hoogbeschaafde culture; Others think that it is simply drawings of a
less impressive nature, of some primitive people. The story wants the aforementioned
high civilization to ever emerge in Atlantis and with the flood has gone down.
The significance of these particular drawings is still not very clear to us. Hunting and
other images of animals could be used very well for magical, cultural or religious
purposes. The people scratched or signed on walls in caves in France, Norway and
Spain. Even the development of the techniques used cannot be dated with certainty. It
is thought of about 4,000 BC. But in the light of the date, that is not possible at all.
It is probable that this way of describing the high civilized peoples came to fruition
before they developed the cuneiform. One used first stones and later clay tablets, in
order to transfer a message into the cuneiform. That must have been somewhere
between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. In the country what we would call Iraq today.
In the then China one used for this purpose then also all wood parts. The weight of the
deeds that the emperor had read daily was more than eighty kilograms.
You see we shoot through history and with it the time.
They also endorsed the assertion that "nothing is thinner and breeder than water, but
that everything that is hard is properly affected by water; The weak that the strong
overcomes "... a true Chinese truth. But that aside.
In the same period, the ancient Greeks also used wooden panels sprinkled with fine
sand and gave the image (writings or images) a prize. Similarly, the mathematical and
techie Archimedes have also recorded his formulas when the Romans in the year 212
occupy his hometown. The Romans themselves used in the year 500 BC before Christ
had been sprinkled tables (the famous twelve tables with laws) to convey their
message. Such tables were always and largely available when the Senate met. In this
technique, a Granger or metallic object scratched a text or image in the preprocessed
tables. This technique would certainly have taken a big flight if no other and better
recordable substance had been discovered: papyrus. But later on.
First we have to talk about parchment: made from dried skins of especially young
sheep and goats. Sources show that in circa 300 BC in the small-Asian (now Turkish)
town of Pergamon there was a decent production. In Alexandria (on the other side of
the Mediterranean), in 202 BC even a library was decorated with mere parchment roles.
It proved ideal for storing written texts and would remain the most popular ' medium '
until long after the invention of the printing art.
Papyrus was roughly used between 3,000 BC and 1,000 A.D. and still applies as one of
the showpieces of Egypt in particular, where, at the Nile, lies the cradle of this material.
The pharaohs have this plant, which endures and has a lot of water, consciously
planted for this purpose. The upper part gold as a delicacy and the sometimes called
an arm thick strain was used for different purposes. So, among other things, complete
ships were built, but it was also the carrier for groceries, which we would call paper
today. The papyrus was cut thinly and evenly in strips that cross were placed over each
other. Then a hammer session followed, with the fibres crushed, to allow the final result
to dry in the spacious sun. The sticky juice from the plant itself kept the strips together.
One saved the dried papyrus in coils; Also today that is still usual.
But there is now an alternative: paper. This is made since the Year 105 after Christ and
in our country only still hand in the open air museum and at the middle Mill in Loenen,
where one works with a steam engine and water power from Wellen with pure water
from the depths of the Veluwe land. The origin of paper, however, is attributed to a
place far from our bed: China, already used for the first paper mainly a mix of water
with mashed berries fibers, ground bark of the mulberry tree and Out rope. The
resulting brain brought the old Chinese to a sieve. Shaking made sure that one and
another were well interlocked and the watery part of the knitting was under the sieve.
After that, the leaf was gently taken down and laid to dry, roughly as it is now with
handmade paper.
Paper made a victory over the continent relatively quickly. First the homeland, Korea
and Japan were done. And when the expansive Arabs discovered that under the
prisoners of war they were also paper-makers, the advance of the paper was
unstoppable. The Arabs let the work of several great writers put on the Chinese
invention and addressed various libraries. The caliph of Cairo possessed at a good time
150,000 books on paper. That was at the end of the year 1,000. Most Western
European monasteries had at that time at best 150 parchment rolls... In fact, it is up to
us to thank the new and advancing Moslem faith that it has finally come to our own.
Partly through the South of Spain (in the eleventh century in Játiva) and partly also
through the current Italy (in 176 in Fabriano) The invention was further spread across
our continent. But it would take until the sixteenth century before it was also produced
in our parts. It is particularly important that modern paper production is still in place in
this way: a mixture of pulp and water is placed on one or between two arrows, dried
and rolled, and cut to smaller rolls or sheets. There are today's machines, which per
hour produce a production equal to the speed allowed on the motorway. And that on
a width of sometimes ten meters or more.
The latter can be seen as evidence of the fact that the paper industry has grown into a
truly high-tech process industry. With a lot less ' romance ', but all the more
contemporary ' challenges '. Thus it is an energy-intensive industry with the most
important raw material: wood. That is what we are doing right now. There is an
increasing demand for wood as biofuel. That, and Russian export levies, leads to
additional costs on timber procurement. Energy intensive also means; Sensitive to
higher oil prices. Because that leads to rising energy and chemicals prices (chemistry
partly determines the print and printing properties of paper). and old paper (with us
still an important raw material for newspaper paper) is becoming more expensive by
growing demand from China (where they make packaging).
At present, the centre of gravity of the industry of Europe and North America shifts to
Asia (again China) and Latin America (due to the rapidly growing attractively priced
eucalyptus trees).
But there is also good news: the ' carbon footprint ' is very good compared to other
industries: In the meantime approximately 60% of biofuels (wood and timber waste)
are used for own energy generation.